What is CBG (Cannabigerol)?

CBG molecular image

CBG, or Cannabigerol, is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in the hemp and Cannabis Sativa plants. As a non-psychoactive compound, it offers a range of potential benefits without inducing any feelings of intoxication.

Researchers, such as Gaoni and Mechoulam, have been instrumental in shedding light on CBG's importance as the precursor to other cannabinoids, including THC and CBD. In recent years, the popularity of CBG oil and its therapeutic uses has grown, piquing the interest of both scientists and consumers alike.

What is CBG oil?

Key takeaways

  • CBG, or Cannabigerol, is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in hemp and cannabis plants.
  • Identified by researchers Gaoni and Mechoulam, CBG is considered the precursor to other cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD.
  • CBG oil has gained traction as a natural supplement, offering potential health benefits.
  • Unlike THC, CBG is non-intoxicating, making it more appealing for therapeutic applications.
  • Research into the potential benefits and applications of CBG is ongoing and expanding.

A brief history of cannabigerol

The story of CBG, or Cannabigerol, is one that intertwines scientific discovery with the dedication of two early pioneers in cannabis research.

In the 1960s, Israeli chemists Yehiel Gaoni and Raphael Mechoulam began investigating the chemical components of marijuana, ultimately leading them to identify and isolate CBG. This discovery paved the way for a deeper understanding of the crucial role that CBG plays within the biochemistry of the cannabis plant.

The history of CBG is one of progressive research and increasing awareness. Discoveries by Gaoni and Mechoulam contributed to the realisation that Cannabigerol acts as a precursor molecule for a variety of other cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD. This characteristic ultimately earned CBG the nickname:

"The mother of all cannabinoids."

As more researchers delved into the complexities of cannabis science, further revelations emerged, shedding light on CBG's potential applications and benefits. Yet, it is important to recognise the groundbreaking work of Gaoni and Mechoulam as forming the foundation for our current understanding of CBG and its role within the cannabis plant's biochemistry.

  1. Yehiel Gaoni and Raphael Mechoulam: the pioneers of cannabinoid research
  2. The 1960s: isolation and identification of CBG
  3. Evolving understanding of CBG's role as a precursor molecule
  4. Emerging potential benefits and applications of CBG

In tracing the history of Cannabigerol, we gain a deeper appreciation for the ongoing efforts of researchers in uncovering the myriad mysteries of cannabis science.

As our knowledge of CBG and its intricate relationship with other cannabinoids evolves, so too does our excitement for the future of Cannabigerol research and the potential benefits it may bring to the world of health and well-being.

Introduction to CBG

Cannabigerol (CBG) is unique among the many cannabinoids found in cannabis due to its role as a precursor to other more well-known compounds such as THC and CBD. In this section, we will dive into what makes CBG distinct from its fellow cannabinoids and explore the process through which it is extracted and produced.

One of the fundamental elements that sets CBG apart from other known cannabinoids is its status as a biochemical parent. It is derived from a natural compound called Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), which is found in greater concentrations in younger cannabis plants.

As the plant matures, CBGA morphs into other cannabinoids such as THCA and CBDA, ultimately giving rise to THC and CBD, respectively.

CBG's non-psychoactive properties, coupled with its potential health benefits, make it a compound of interest in both scientific and commercial circles.

As a non-psychoactive CBG, CBG does not produce the high associated with THC, making it a more appealing compound for therapeutic applications. Additionally, high-CBG strains have emerged in recent years as researchers continue to study the various health benefits associated with this unique cannabinoid.

The process of CBG extraction

The CBG extraction process typically involves isolating and purifying CBG from young cannabis plants. These plants contain higher levels of CBGA, which are subsequently converted into CBG.

One common technique for refining this raw material is through chemical chromatography, as documented by various studies such as those by Citti et al. and Wang et al.

Step Description
1. Harvesting Young cannabis plants with higher CBGA concentrations are harvested to maximise CBG yield.
2. Decarboxylation Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) is converted into CBG through a controlled heating process that removes CO2.
3. Extraction CBG is separated from the plant matter using techniques such as CO2 extraction or chromatography.
4. Purification & Isolation Impurities are eliminated, and the resulting mixture is further separated to isolate the desired CBG fraction.
5. Final Product After purification, the resulting CBG can be incorporated into various products for therapeutic use.
How is CBG Oil Made?

The chemical structure of CBG

The molecular structure of Cannabigerol (CBG) plays a crucial role in its interactions with the human body's endocannabinoid system.

CBG Molecular image

Over the years, researchers have thoroughly analysed the molecular composition of CBG, providing invaluable insights into its potential therapeutic properties and molecular interactions with both cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid receptors.

Key discoveries in cannabinoid chemistry were made by researchers like Hanuš et al., who successfully mapped out CBG's molecular configuration. Their findings have significantly contributed to understanding how CBG interacts with various receptors in the human body.

"CBG is the non-acidic form of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), which serves as the parent molecule from which other cannabinoids are synthesised." - Hanuš et al.

These molecular interactions can be further understood by examining the chemical structure of CBG.

The molecular formula of CBG is C21H32O2, and it shares similarities with other cannabinoids like CBD and THC in terms of its basic structural elements, such as a 21-carbon chain backbone. However, these molecules display crucial differences that lead to varied interactions and pharmacological outcomes.

  • Molecular composition: CBG contains a cyclohexene ring, while other cannabinoids like CBD have a benzene ring in their molecular structures.
  • Double bond configuration: The positioning of the double bond in the cyclohexene ring differs between CBG and THC.
  • Functional groups: There are variations in the functional groups present within the molecular structure of CBG compared to other cannabinoids, contributing to its distinct properties and effects.

As highlighted by Pertwee and collaborators, the molecular composition of Cannabigerol has major implications for its potential as a therapeutic agent.

The unique chemical structure of CBG is responsible for the way it interacts with both cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid receptors, influencing a diverse array of physiological processes.

CBG vs. other cannabinoids

When it comes to comparing cannabinoids, many people tend to focus on the differences between CBG, CBD, and THC. Although they all originate from the cannabis plant, their unique chemical structures and interactions within the human body set them apart.

In this section, we will explore the key differences and similarities between these three prominent cannabinoids.

Cannabinoid Chemical structure Psychoactive properties Affinity for cannabinoid receptors Potential clinical applications
CBG (Cannabigerol) Unique precursor structure Non-psychoactive Low affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors Anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antimicrobial
CBD (Cannabidiol) Similar to CBG but with molecular differences Non-psychoactive Low affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors Anxiety relief, anti-seizure, and pain management
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) Distinct from CBG and CBD Psychoactive High affinity for CB1 receptors and moderate affinity for CB2 receptors Pain relief, appetite stimulation, and nausea reduction

While THC is well-known for its psychoactive effects, both CBG and CBD are non-psychoactive and do not induce intoxication. However, they differ in their affinities for cannabinoid receptors in the body.

As demonstrated by studies from Navarro et al. and Cascio et al., CBG and CBD interact differently with these receptors, which in turn influences their pharmacological effects and potential clinical applications.

"CBG and CBD are both non-psychoactive; however, they differ in their affinity for cannabinoid receptors."

Given their unique properties, it's essential to consider the individual benefits and potential uses of CBG, CBD, and THC within the wider context of cannabinoid research.

Ultimately, understanding these differences and similarities will pave the way for optimised therapeutic applications and a more comprehensive approach to cannabinoid-based wellness.

What are cannabinoids?

The potential health benefits of CBG

Recent research has shed light on the potential health benefits of CBG and its therapeutic effects, sparking interest and curiosity in the scientific community and beyond.

Though definitive conclusions have yet to be reached, preliminary studies suggest that CBG may offer various health benefits, including anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties.

Italian researcher Francesca Borrelli and her colleagues discovered in their research that CBG demonstrated promising potential as an anti-inflammatory agent.

Their study found that CBG could reduce inflammation in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease, hinting at CBG's possible application for human patients in the future.

“Cannabigerol (CBG) demonstrated extremely potent actions…thus representing a possible therapy for inflammatory bowel disease." - Borrelli et al., 2013.

Furthermore, Spanish researcher Xavier Nadal and his team conducted a study exploring the neuroprotective effects of CBG on mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis. Their research found that CBG could reduce neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, which could help preserve the health and function of neurons in the brain.

While these preliminary studies offer intriguing insights into CBG's potential benefits, it is essential to note that more comprehensive human CBG research is needed to substantiate these findings. Current investigations are focusing on the potential of CBG for various conditions, such as:

  • Glaucoma
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Parkinson's and Alzheimer's)
  • Cancer
  • Antimicrobial treatments

The potential health benefits of CBG are undoubtedly of great interest to researchers, practitioners, and consumers alike. As the scientific community conducts further studies, the therapeutic potential of Cannabigerol may be better understood and more broadly applied.

However, it's essential to stay informed and consult with a healthcare professional when considering integrating CBG into one's wellness routine.

What Are The Benefits of CBG Oil?

Current research on CBG

Recent studies on CBG have primarily focused on its pharmacokinetics, its potential to treat specific medical conditions, and its role in the endocannabinoid system. CBG current research has involved the examination of its effects on various cell lines, receptors, and biological pathways.

Cannabigerol studies, such as those conducted by Waldstein et al., suggest a wide range of potential therapeutic effects that warrant further investigation through clinical trials.

In addition to its broader applications, CBG has garnered significant attention due to exciting findings in specific illnesses. Some of the areas where CBG is being researched include:

  1. Anti-inflammatory properties
  2. Antioxidant effects
  3. Neuroprotection
  4. Anti-bacterial activity

Scientists are increasingly examining CBG's potential for use in the context of cannabinoids in medicine, seeking to better understand its interaction within the endocannabinoid system and various receptor sites. This line of research is crucial for determining the viability of CBG as a therapeutic agent for medical conditions.

“Cannabigerol (CBG) is a promising therapeutic cannabinoid that has shown potential effects in various medical conditions. However, more research is needed to better understand its mechanisms of action and establish its safety and efficacy in clinical settings.”

Interaction with receptors and potential benefits

A study highlights that CBG interacts weakly with cannabinoid receptors (CBR1 and CBR2) and is the most potent ligand of transient receptor potential (TRPV1) among phytocannabinoids.

This study also notes CBG's unique interaction with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT 1A) and its potential neuroprotective role in Huntington’s disease, effectiveness against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and capability to reduce eye pressure in glaucoma without psychotropic side effects​​.

Anti-Inflammatory and skin health properties

Another study titled "In Vitro and Clinical Evaluation of Cannabigerol (CBG) Produced via Yeast Biosynthesis" discusses CBG's broad range of anti-inflammatory properties and benefits for skin health.

This research points towards the therapeutic potential of CBG in skincare and inflammation management​​.

Reduction of inflammation, pain, and obesity

A study on novel CBG derivatives indicates their ability to reduce inflammation, pain, and obesity. This study underlines the growing interest in CBG due to its various therapeutic benefits​​.

Effects on pulmonary inflammation

Research focused on the anti-inflammatory effects of CBG and CBD, both alone and in combination, in a model of pulmonary inflammation induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This study contributes to understanding how CBG could be beneficial in treating inflammatory lung conditions​​.

Nausea and vomiting relief

The role of CBG in relieving nausea and vomiting has been explored, with findings indicating that CBG can block CBD-induced anti-nausea effects in animal models. This aspect of CBG's pharmacology is detailed in the Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies, 2017​​.

Despite the encouraging findings so far, CBG research is still in its early stages and involves mostly pre-clinical studies. Clinical trials with larger human samples are necessary to better comprehend CBG's effects, safety, and optimal dosages for specific conditions.

Furthermore, in order to establish CBG's place in the field of medicine, more extensive research comparing its effects with other well-known cannabinoids such as THC and CBD will also prove beneficial in shaping our understanding of this intriguing compound.

CBG holds immense potential in the realm of therapeutics. As scientific research continues to explore and validate its uses and effects, we can anticipate a growing interest in this valuable cannabinoid and its applications within medicine.

CBG in consumer products

As interest in the potential benefits of CBG continues to grow, so does the range of CBG products available on the market. In this section, we explore the various types of consumer-grade Cannabigerol (CBG) products and provide guidance on choosing quality CBG products that are safe and effective.

Varieties of CBG products on the market

CBG products come in a variety of forms, catering to different preferences and needs. Some popular types of CBG products include:

  • Tinctures
  • Gummies
  • Capsules
  • Topicals

These products can be found in diverse concentrations and formulations, offering flexibility in terms of dosage and application methods. To complement the CBG market growth, manufacturers are continuously working on developing new product lines to meet consumer demand.

Buy CBG oil here.

Choosing quality CBG products

When it comes to CBG, product quality and safety should be top priorities. The unregulated nature of the market can make it challenging to find reliable and effective products. To ensure you select a high-quality CBG product, consider the following factors:

  1. Third-party testing: Look for products that have undergone third-party lab testing, which helps verify the purity and potency of the CBG product.
  2. COAs (Certificates of Analysis): Reputable brands usually provide COAs on their websites or upon request, detailing information on the product's cannabinoid profile, contaminant testing, and other relevant parameters.
  3. Product origin and cultivation: The quality of the hemp source plays a significant role in determining the quality of the final product. Opt for products made from organically grown hemp that adheres to strict cultivation standards.
  4. Extraction methods: The extraction process used for isolating CBG can affect the product's quality. CO2 extraction is often considered superior due to its ability to produce clean and high-quality CBG without the use of harsh solvents.

By paying close attention to these factors and conducting thorough research on available products, you can make informed decisions when choosing CBG products to incorporate into your daily routine.

Methods of Consuming CBG

How to use CBG

Integrating CBG into your wellness routine can be a personalised experience based on individual goals, tolerance, and preferred consumption methods.

Whether you are seeking potential anti-inflammatory effects, neuroprotection, or other proposed benefits, starting with small dosages and gradually increasing as required can help tailor your experience to your own needs.

Using daily CBG in various forms, such as oils, edibles, capsules, or topicals, offers flexibility in incorporating this cannabinoid into your health regimen. 

With advancements in research and market development, it is likely that CBG products will become more accessible and tailored to individual needs, further enhancing their utility within the wellness sphere.

How Much CBG Oil Should I Use?

The future of CBG

With ongoing research and technological advances, the future of CBG appears to be promising. Innovations in CBG extraction technology and synthetic Cannabigerol are shaping the industry, leading to more efficient production and greater accessibility. In this section, we will discuss notable breakthroughs in the field and forecast the potential growth of the CBG market.

The Future of CBG

Recent developments in CBG extraction technology and cannabinoid biosynthesis have optimized the production process, reducing costs and increasing the availability of this valuable compound.

Researchers like Taura et al. and Gagne et al. have explored innovative techniques to improve the extraction and synthesis of CBG, leading to a more sustainable and cost-effective supply chain for both medical research and consumer products.

"Innovative methods in CBG extraction and synthesis are driving a more efficient production process, making CBG more accessible to consumers and researchers alike."

These innovations are expected to reshape the CBG landscape, ultimately leading to enhanced product offerings and increased demand for this emerging cannabinoid.

Frequently asked questions

What is CBG?

CBG, or Cannabigerol, is a non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid found in the Cannabis sativa plant. It is the precursor to other cannabinoids like CBD and THC.

How is CBG produced in the cannabis plant?

CBG is produced as cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), which is the acidic form and a biosynthetic precursor of CBD and THC. CBGA undergoes decarboxylation, catalyzed by heat, to form CBG.

What are the pharmacokinetic properties of CBG?

CBG is metabolized in the liver by the enzyme CYP2J2, producing hydroxyl and di-oxygenated products. It exhibits higher concentrations in the oral fluid of frequent cannabis smokers after inhalation than after oral intake.

Does CBG bind to cannabinoid receptors?

Yes, CBG is considered a partial agonist at the CB1 and CB2 receptors. It also has other potential pharmacological targets like TRP channels, COX enzymes, and 5-HT1A receptors.

What are the potential therapeutic effects of CBG?

CBG has shown potential in reducing intraocular pressure, possessing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumoral activities, and having anti-anxiety, neuroprotective, dermatological, and appetite-stimulating effects.

Can CBG be used for pain relief?

While research is ongoing, CBG has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, which may contribute to pain relief.

Is CBG effective in treating anxiety and depression?

CBG has potential as an anxiolytic and antidepressant, but more research is needed to fully understand its effects.

How does CBG affect skin health?

CBG's antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties may help improve skin health, but more research is needed in this area.

Can CBG be used as a sleep aid?

There is limited research on CBG's effects on sleep, but it has shown potential as a sleep aid.

What are the differences in the effects of CBG compared to CBD and THC?

Unlike THC, CBG does not have psychotomimetic effects. It shares some mechanisms of action with CBD but has distinct pharmacological properties due to its different molecular structure and receptor interactions.

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Robin Roy Krigslund-Hansen

Robin Roy Krigslund-Hansen

About the author:

Robin Roy Krigslund-Hansen is known for his extensive knowledge and expertise in the fields of CBD and hemp production. With a career spanning over a decade in the cannabis industry, he has dedicated his life to understanding the intricacies of these plants and their potential benefits to human health and the environment. Over the years, Robin has worked tirelessly to promote the full legalization of hemp in Europe. His fascination with the plant's versatility and potential for sustainable production led him to pursue a career in the field.

More about Robin Roy Krigslund-Hansen

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